按列和多行分组为一行多列 [英] Group by column and multiple Rows into One Row multiple columns

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本文介绍了按列和多行分组为一行多列的处理方法,对大家解决问题具有一定的参考价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习吧!

问题描述

请帮帮我:

我希望按列TestType分组,但如果结果具有相同的TestType,则应将结果拆分为多个列

CREATE TABLE Result(WorkOrder varchar(10), TestType varchar(20), Result decimal(10,2));
INSERT INTO Result (WorkOrder, TestType, Result) VALUES 
('HP19002316','VitaminA', 10.3),
('HP19002316','VitaminA', 11.3),
('HP19002316','VitaminA', 12.3),
('HP19002316','VitaminB', 13.4),
('HP19002316','VitaminB', 14.4),
('HP19002316','VitaminC', 15.5),
('HP19002316','VitaminD', 17.0)

我希望SQL以此格式返回数据

WorkOrder       TestType        Result1   Result2  Result3 
==========================================================
HP19002316      VitaminA        10.3        11.3    12.3    
HP19002316      VitaminB        13.4        14.4    NULL
HP19002316      VitaminC        15.5        NULL    NULL
HP19002316      VitaminD        17.0        NULL    NULL

结果#列应该是动态的,因为每个TestType都有许多结果

推荐答案

正如我在评论中提到的,您在这里需要的是PIVOT或交叉表;我更喜欢后者,所以我将使用后者。

此问题的非动态解决方案如下:

WITH RNs AS(
    SELECT WorkOrder,
           TestType,
           Result,
           ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY WorkOrder, TestType ORDER BY (SELECT NULL)) AS RN --ORDER BY should be your ID/always ascending column
    FROM dbo.Result)
SELECT WorkOrder,
       TestType,
       MAX(CASE RN WHEN 1 THEN Result END) AS Result1,
       MAX(CASE RN WHEN 2 THEN Result END) AS Result2,
       MAX(CASE RN WHEN 3 THEN Result END) AS Result3
FROM RNs R
GROUP BY WorkOrder,
         TestType;
然而,问题是这会将您锁定为3个结果,但您建议有一个不确定数量的结果。因此,您需要一个动态解决方案。

以下是最多100个结果。如果需要的列多于,则向CTETally中的N添加更多CROSS JOIN。结果如下图所示(相当混乱)。

DECLARE @SQL nvarchar(MAX),
        @CRLF nchar(2) = NCHAR(13) + NCHAR(10),
        @MaxTally int;

SELECT @MaxTally = MAX(C)
FROM (SELECT COUNT(*) AS C
      FROM dbo.Result
      GROUP BY WorkOrder,
               TestType) R;

WITH N AS(
    SELECT N
    FROM (VALUES(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL),(NULL))N(N)),
Tally AS(
    SELECT TOP (@MaxTally) ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY (SELECT NULL)) AS I
    FROM N N1, N N2) --100 rows, add more Ns for more rows
SELECT @SQL = N'WITH RNs AS(' + @CRLF +
              N'    SELECT WorkOrder,' + @CRLF +
              N'           TestType,' + @CRLF +
              N'           Result,' + @CRLF +
              N'           ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY WorkOrder, TestType ORDER BY (SELECT NULL)) AS RN --ORDER BY should be your ID/always ascending column' + @CRLF +
              N'    FROM dbo.Result)' + @CRLF +
              N'SELECT WorkOrder,' + @CRLF +
              N'       TestType,' + @CRLF +
              --Using FOR XML PATH due to not knowing SQL Server version
              STUFF((SELECT N',' + @CRLF +
                            CONCAT(N'       MAX(CASE RN WHEN ',T.I,N' THEN Result END) AS Result',T.I)
                     FROM Tally T
                     ORDER BY T.I ASC
                     FOR XML PATH(N''),TYPE).value('(./text())[1]','nvarchar(MAX)'),1,3,N'') + @CRLF +
              N'FROM RNs R' + @CRLF +
              N'GROUP BY WorkOrder,' + @CRLF +
              N'         TestType;';

PRINT @SQL; --Your best friend.

EXEC sys.sp_executesql @SQL;

这篇关于按列和多行分组为一行多列的文章就介绍到这了,希望我们推荐的答案对大家有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持IT屋!

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